A to Z Nutrients
Vitamin B-1 (Thiamine) is necessary for carbohydrate metabolism. It helps maintain a healthy nervous system, stabilizes the appetite, and stimulates growth and good muscle tone. It can reduce the negative effects of drinking, by helping to eliminate acetylaldehyde, the major toxic by-product of alcohol ingestion. Signs of deficiency include: gastrointestinal problems, fatigue, loss of appetite, and heart disorders. Recommended amounts (to avoid deficiency disease, not for optimal health): Infants: 0.3 - 0.5 mg; Children: 0.7-1.2 mg; Men: 1.4 mg; Women: 1.0 mg. There is no known oral toxicity.
Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) is necessary for carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. It helps form antibodies, red blood cells, and to maintain cell respiration. Signs of deficiency include eye problems, cracks and sores in mouth, dermatitis, retarded growth, and digestive disturbances. Recommended amounts (to avoid deficiency disease, not for optimal health): Infants: 0.4 - 0.6 mg; Children: 0.8 - 1.4 mg; Men: 1.6 mg; Women: 1.2 mg. There is no known oral toxicity.
Vitamin B-3 (Niacin, Nicotinic acid, Niacinamide) is necessary for carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. It has been used to help bring down cholesterol levels. It helps to maintain the health of the skin, tongue, and digestive system. Signs of deficiency include dermatitis, nervous disorders, headaches, insomnia, bad breath, digestive disturbances, and sore mouth and gums. Recommended amounts (to avoid deficiency disease, not for optimal health): Infants: 6 - 8 mg; Children: 9 - 16 mg; Men: 16 mg; Women: 13 mg. Amounts of 4 grams or more a day (in divided doses) have been used to successfully lower cholesterol; however, this high dose level requires monitoring of liver enzyme levels by a health practitioner. A temporary side effect of niacin ingestion (but not of niacinamide) is the niacin flush.
Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic acid) participates in the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. It aids in the utilization of several vitamins, helps the formation of some fats, and it improves the body's ability to respond to stress. Signs of deficiency include vomiting, restlessness, increased susceptibility to infection, gastrointestinal disturbances, depression, and fatigue. Recommended amounts (to avoid deficiency disease, not for optimal health): Infants: 2-3 mg; Children: 3-7 mg; Adults: 5-10 mg. Doses of 10,000-20,000 mg may cause side effects in some persons. (top)
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) is necessary for carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. It aids in the formation of antibodies, and helps to maintain the balance of sodium and phosphorus. Signs of deficiency include anemia, mouth disorders, nervousness, muscular weakness, dermatitis, dandruff, and water retention. Recommended amounts (to avoid deficiency disease, not for optimal health): Infants: 0.3-0.6 mg; Children: 0.9-1.8 mg; Men: 2.2 mg; Women: 2 mg. Doses over 200 mg per day may contribute to a rare nervous condition in some people.
Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) is essential for carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism, and for normal formation of blood cells. It also helps maintain the nervous system. Signs of deficiency include pernicious anemia, brain damage, nervousness, and neuritis. Recommended amounts (to avoid deficiency disease, not for optimal health): Infants: 0.5 - 1.5 mcg; Children: 2-3 mcg; Adults: 3 mcg. There is no known oral toxicity.
Balm of Gilead (Populus spp.) Soothes, disinfects and astringes mucous membranes. Expectorant; anodyne; specific for laryngitis, coughs and sore throat.
BarleyGreen is made from week-old barley "leaves". It's luminous green color testifies to it's high chlorophyll content, and it's loaded with other nutrients including trace minerals, enzymes, beta-carotene, and others. Many people add it to their morning protein drink for an extra lift; others report that it helps to regulate their bowel function, probably due to it's fiber content and the presence of chlorophyll. Another reported use involves taking a packet of BarleyGreen with a packet of Alacer Emergen-C every 2 hours, when flying. It provides antioxidant support, helping to significantly decrease the symptoms of jet-lag.
Bayberry Bark (Myrica cerifera) Astringent, used for bleeding gums and sore throat, diarrhea. G.I. inflammation, post partum hemorrhage; vasodilator of skin and mucous membranes.
BeePollen has been eaten by birds for countless centuries, and just look at the energy those lil' guys have! Many of us have found bee pollen to have a nourishing and energizing effect on humans, as well, though nobody we know has sprouted wings and taken to the sky... yet. One proponent of the "apiary life-style", Royden Brown, claims in his book, Bee Hive Product Bible, to have rejuvenated his body by consuming large amounts of bee pollen and other bee products, such as royal jelly and propolis (see the Immune Topic for a discussion of propolis). Bee Pollen is known to contain B vitamins, trace minerals, and enzymes, as well as other nutritional elements.
Bifidus refers to Bifidobacterium, the kind of friendly bacteria that works in the large intestine to keep it healthy. The large intestine serves as the bodys waste-disposal management system, and it needs specific flora to help it maintain a healthy balance. These friendly flora live on the intestinal wall, discouraging bad bacteria from taking up residence and helping the large intestine dispose of unused foods. Besides protecting against harmful bacteria, a good bifidus produces B vitamins that help the body complete the digestive process.
Bioflavonoids are a family of compounds that consist of thousands of plant pigments and active ingredients that provide a variety of benefits. Citrus bioflavonoids help increase the strength of capillaries, which can correct excessive cell permeability, so they were originally dubbed "Vitamin P". Signs of deficiency include the tendency to bruise and bleed easily. There is no RDA. There are many other bioflavonoids, such as Quercetin, that have other specific effects. (top)
Biotin is necessary for carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. It aids in the utilization of other B vitamins. Signs of deficiency include dermatitis, grayish skin color, depression, muscle pain, impairment of fat metabolism, and poor appetite. Recommended amounts (to avoid deficiency disease, not for optimal health): Infants: 35-50 mcg; Children: 65-200 mcg; Adults:150-300 mcg. There is no known oral toxicity.
Black Cohosh Root (Cimicifuga racemosa) Anti-spasmodic, used for menstrual cramping, coughs, muscle spasms; emmenagogue; relieves hot flashes in menopausal women; mild sedative.
Blessed Thistle (Cnicus benedictus) Increases lactation; emmenagogue; carminative, for indigestion and chronic headaches; astringent, for diarrhea and hemorrhage.
Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) Uterine tonic, emmenagogue; diuretic; Antispasmodic; diaphoretic; mild expectorant. For use in last trimester only.
Blue Flag Root (Iris versicolor) Liver purgative, blood purifier; cathartic; sialagogue; diuretic. For constipation and biliousness, eruptive skin conditions. Low doses only.
Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata) Soothes cranky children, sedative, antidepressant, diaphoretic, febrifuge, anti-spasmodic, mild analgesic.
Boldo is an herb that has been used in South America for hundreds of years. If you overeat at any Argentinean restaurant, you will be offered a cup of boldo tea. It promotes fat digestion by stimulating the secretion of bile and helps to neutralize excess acid. Boldo is also used to treat liver, gallbladder and bowel dysfunctions. Other reputed uses are for urogenital inflammations, uric acid elimination, gout, hepatitis, rheumatism, and as an antiseptic.
Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum) For flu symptoms, aches and pains; clears mucous congestion; reduces fevers; muscular rheumatism.
Boron is a trace mineral that reduces the urinary excretion of calcium, especially when magnesium is low. It appears that taking 3 mg. daily has an appreciable affect on calcium absorption in postmenopausal women, reducing calcium loss and bone demineralization. (top)
Boswellia has traditionally been used to reduce the pain and inflammation of arthritic conditions in Ayurveda.
Bovine Cartilage Arthritis is characterized as inflammation of the joints, surrounding tendons, ligaments and cartilage. One of the oldest human afflictions, arthritis can affect virtually every part of the body. Two of the most common forms of the disease are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease of joint cartilage. It is characterized by small bony growths, calcium spurs, and occasional soft cysts which appear on the bone and in the joints. Its symptoms include loss of joint motion, stiffness, swelling and pain. An estimated 40 million Americans suffer from osteoarthritis, according to the Rheumatoid Disease Foundation.
Rheumatoid arthritis is classified as an autoimmune disease in which the body attacks its own tissue. Although less common than osteoarthritis, it is a very painful joint disease which often results in crippling disabilities for the young and old alike. Rheumatoid arthritis afflicts six million Americans.
In his significant research of the health promoting applications of bovine tracheal cartilage, John F. Prudden, MD, Med.Sc.D., has contributed to the abundant evidence of its anti-inflammatory properties. Reducing inflammation is a crucial part of arthritis therapy. Bovine cartilage not only does this, but it also provides healthy biochemical components that the body can utilize in resynthesizing cartilage. Both the oral and injectable forms of bovine tracheal cartilage have been proven effective.
In a 1974 report published in Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, Dr. Prudden reported the remarkable results he achieved in the treatment of moderate to severe cases of osteoarthritis. His subjects suffered from functional disability ranging from slight to significant, and a majority had noticeable cartilage and bone degeneration. These individuals had lesions visible by x-rays as well as severe symptomology and demonstrated the usual joint degeneration pattern. Over a period of three to eight weeks, these subjects received daily subcutaneous injections of 50cc of a bovine cartilage solution known. (Bovine tracheal cartilage powder has been prepared for human use through rigorous maintenance of its natural components. The -solution was a 5% extract of bovine tracheal cartilage powder preserved with 9% benzyl alcohol.) By the end of the study, of the 28 patients who participated, 19 were classified as "excellent," six were "good," and two noted "some" benefit. (Excellent results were defined as those patients who experienced complete elimination of pain and discomfort. Good results were marked by a decrease in pain and an increase in mobility with some residual discomfort and disability.) No toxicity was reported, and patients' relief lasted an average of 7 months after the study was completed.
Dr. Prudden commented, "These present data appear to be of major significance since it is estimated that 30 million Americans have clinically demonstrable and symptomatic osteoarthritis." he urged that "a material of such great potential benefit to so many millions of people should be made generally available as soon as possible."
Dr. Prudden subsequently tested the effects of oral ingestion of nine grams daily of bovine cartilage, to see if it would produce similar results as the injectable form in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Of 700 cases of osteoarthritis treated with bovine cartilage, 59 percent experienced "excellent" results and 26 percent experienced "good" results for a total amelioration rate of 85 percent. The average length of remission was six to eight weeks. Oral administration is more convenient and less painful than injected treatment, and does not require a doctor to administer it.
According to Dr. Prudden, for ongoing relief, a reduction of the therapeutic dose of 9 grams per day may be possible depending upon the patient's symptoms. A long term, double-blind study conducted in 1987 at Charles University in Prague, Czechoslovakia, confirmed Dr Prudence's earlier results. In the 194 participating patients with osteoarthritis, pain scores dropped an average of 50 percent.
In light of the fact that standard treatments with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SNAILS) do not stop the progression of arthritis and provide only short-term relief, the results achieved with bovine cartilage are indeed encouraging. in addition, NSAIDs have significant side effects such as gastrointestinal upset, headaches and dizziness. Several studies have indicated that NSAIDs use is associated with the acceleration of osteoarthritis and increased joint destruction.
Rheumatoid arthritis has traditionally been seen as a disease that leads inexorably to the degeneration of joints, finally incapacitating the sufferer. Standard treatments provide only short term relief. However, Dr. Prudden has had strikingly, positive results using bovine cartilage in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
In patients suffering from chronic rheumatoid arthritis of the knees, wrists, elbows, hips, hands, and fingers, who had symptoms including swollen and immobile joints, and severe pain and stiffness, Dr. Prudden administered a daily dose of 50cc of subcutaneously injected of bovine cartilage extract. Bovine cartilage is noted not only for its anti-inflammatory effects, but also for its immuno-modulatory properties. It is encouraging affirmation of these properties that out of the nine patients studied, three experienced excellent results and six had good results - 100 percent success rate using bovine cartilage as the sole therapy.
Dr. Prudden has also achieved positive results with the oral administration of bovine cartilage in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Given this rich base of scientific evidence, renewed attention is being directed to Dr. Prudden's work. A non-toxic and powerful agent, bovine tracheal cartilage can provide relief to sufferers of osteo and rheumatoid arthritis. As a result of Dr. Prudden's successful and meticulously documented research, bovine cartilage is now available to the public. (top)
Burdock Root (Arctium lappa) Blood cleanser; anti-microbial, used for skin eruptions, dry/scaly skin conditions, cancer. Digestive stimulant. Lowers blood sugar.
Butterbur (Petasites hybridus) Muscle relaxant, used for intestinal colic, asthma, painful menses; mild febrifuge.